组团学

Ansible自动化运维平台部署

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一、部署前准备

  • 部署机器准备
  • 计算机名解析
  • 关闭防火墙、selinux
  • 时间同步
  • 软件包获得
  • ssh免密登陆

约定事项:

  1. 所有服务器全部采用静态ip

    主机名称 IP地址
    manage01 192.168.98.200/24
    node1 192.168.98.201/24
    node2 192.168.98.202/24
    node3 192.168.98.203/24
  2. 主机名及主机名互相绑定

    [root@manage01 ~]# cat /etc/hosts 127.0.0.1 localhost ::1 localhost 192.168.98.200 manage01 192.168.98.201 node1 192.168.98.202 node2 192.168.98.203 node3 其他机器同理
  3. 关闭防火墙, selinux

    [root@manage01 ~]# systemctl disable firewalld [root@manage01 ~]# sed -i -r '/SELINUX=/c\SELINUX=disabled' /etc/selinux/config [root@manage01 ~]# reboot 其他机器同理
  4. 采用时间服务器,时间同步

    1、修改配置文件,配置时间服务器为阿里云的时间服务器 [root@manage01 ~]# egrep "^server" /etc/chrony.conf server ntp1.aliyun.com server ntp2.aliyun.com server ntp3.aliyun.com server ntp4.aliyun.com #注释 # pool 2.centos.pool.ntp.org iburst 2、重启服务chronyd [root@manage01 ~]# systemctl restart chronyd.service 3、查看源信息 #chronyc chrony的命令行客户端 [root@manage01 ~]# chronyc sources -v 210 Number of sources = 2 .-- Source mode '^' = server, '=' = peer, '#' = local clock. / .- Source state '*' = current synced, '+' = combined , '-' = not combined, | / '?' = unreachable, 'x' = time may be in error, '~' = time too variable. || .- xxxx [ yyyy ] +/- zzzz || Reachability register (octal) -. | xxxx = adjusted offset, || Log2(Polling interval) --. | | yyyy = measured offset, || \ | | zzzz = estimated error. || | | \ MS Name/IP address Stratum Poll Reach LastRx Last sample =============================================================================== ^? 120.25.115.20 2 6 1 3 +663us[ +663us] +/- 23ms ^? 203.107.6.88 2 6 1 2 -1326us[-1326us] +/- 17ms
  5. 确认和配置yum源(需要epel源)

    [root@manage01 ~]# yum -y install epel-*
    

    6.ssh远程连接

    管理端和被管理端连接时基于ssh的,所以有两种连接方式

    1)基于ssh口令

    2)基于ssh证书(重点讲解)

    如果想不需要运维人员干预,被管理端必须允许管理端证书免密登陆。

  6. #管理端manage01生成ssh公私钥 [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-keygen Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/root/.ssh/id_rsa): Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: SHA256:aufJno2QjPK/V63/PVW13h5oWlKu0jk7HesXYTho0gM root@manage01 The key's randomart image is: +---[RSA 2048]----+ | | | E .| | o . . o| | . = + +.| | S o.+ = +| | o o ...* +o| | . . * ....O o.+| | o . =.*.B o +.| | ..o+B oo*oo o| +----[SHA256]-----+ #将公钥传给node1 [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.201 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub" The authenticity of host '192.168.98.201 (192.168.98.201)' can't be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:u+yOQz+E+eF7Oixdz/vClLXlAEu/7K8jy783gzk20dQ. ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:c0:80:1b:ae:93:32:c2:66:f5:da:2f:1c:26:1e:7e:f8. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys root@192.168.98.201's password: Number of key(s) added: 1 Now try logging into the machine, with: "ssh 'root@192.168.98.201'" and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added. #将公钥传给node2 [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.202 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub" The authenticity of host '192.168.98.202 (192.168.98.202)' can't be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:X4JeiiFuwV0cja81veAyGCosriEfZm/zv34cfYkuxmU. ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:7d:17:0f:80:d5:2b:30:ec:2c:62:f9:79:6b:fb:5f:bc. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys root@192.168.98.202's password: Number of key(s) added: 1 Now try logging into the machine, with: "ssh 'root@192.168.98.202'" and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added. #将公钥传给node3 [root@manage01 ~]# ssh-copy-id -i .ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.203 /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: Source of key(s) to be installed: ".ssh/id_rsa.pub" The authenticity of host '192.168.98.203 (192.168.98.203)' can't be established. ECDSA key fingerprint is SHA256:PtpsYBjaXkE+o3j8QYU5Ju8uPgcW2lVW8wsx4X1PV/c. ECDSA key fingerprint is MD5:50:a1:63:a0:ef:e7:61:26:11:25:ae:06:ec:93:cb:18. Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: attempting to log in with the new key(s), to filter out any that are already installed /usr/bin/ssh-copy-id: INFO: 1 key(s) remain to be installed -- if you are prompted now it is to install the new keys root@192.168.98.203's password: Number of key(s) added: 1 Now try logging into the machine, with: "ssh 'root@192.168.98.203'" and check to make sure that only the key(s) you wanted were added. 小窍门 免交互创建公私钥 [root@manage01 ansible]# ssh-keygen -f /root/.ssh/id_rsa -N "" -f 指定密钥存放路径 -N "" 新密码设置问空 -P "" 老密码是什么 如何可以非交互式传公钥呢 [root@manage01 ansible]# yum -y install sshpass [root@manage01 ansible]# sshpass -p111111 ssh-copy-id -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -i /root/.ssh/id_rsa.pub root@192.168.98.202 StrictHostKeyChecking 严厉的主机监测=no 就不会问你yes|no了 sshpass 非交互式传密码 测试证书是否生效 [root@manage01 ~]# for i in `seq 201 203`;do > ssh root@192.168.98.$i "hostname" > done node1 node2 node3 看到返回客户端的计算机名称

二、ansible管理端部署

2.1)管理端安装ansible

安装方式:

1)yum

[root@manage01 ~]# yum -y install ansible [root@manage01 ~]# ansible --version ansible 2.8.5 config file = /etc/ansible/ansible.cfg configured module search path = ['/root/.ansible/plugins/modules', '/usr/share/ansible/plugins/modules'] ansible python module location = /usr/lib/python3.6/site-packages/ansible executable location = /usr/bin/ansible python version = 3.6.8 (default, May 21 2019, 23:51:36) [GCC 8.2.1 20180905 (Red Hat 8.2.1-3)]

2) 源码

1、官网下载地址:https://releases.ansible.com/ansible [root@manage01 ~]# wget https://releases.ansible.com/ansible/ansible-2.9.3.tar.gz 2、安装ansible [root@manage01 ~]# tar xf ansible-2.9.3.tar.gz [root@manage01 ~]# mv ansible-2.9.3 /opt/ansible [root@manage01 ~]# cd /opt/ansible-2.9.3 #python软件包安装--1、安装依赖 [root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# pip3 install -r requirements.txt -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple/ [root@manage01 ansible]# ln -s /usr/bin/pip3 /usr/bin/pip #python软件包安装--2、安装软件 [root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# pip install --user ansible -i https://pypi.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/simple/ #安装后设置 [root@manage01 ~]# ln -s /usr/bin/python3 /usr/bin/python [root@manage01 ~]# ln -s /opt/ansible/bin/* /usr/bin/ [root@manage01 ~]# cp /opt/ansible/examples/ansible.cfg /etc/ansible/ [root@manage01 ~]# cp /opt/ansible/examples/hosts /etc/ansible/

FAQ1

[root@manage01 ansible-2.9.0rc3]# ./bin/ansible -m ping 192.168.98.201 [WARNING]: No inventory was parsed, only implicit localhost is available [WARNING]: provided hosts list is empty, only localhost is available. Note that the implicit localhost does not match 'all' [WARNING]: Could not match supplied host pattern, ignoring: 192.168.98.201 触发原因 执行ansible的时候回去读取客户端文件hosts,如果没有把客户端加入到hosts文件,就说明无法ansible无法管理。 解决方案 [root@manage01 ansible]# mkdir /etc/ansible [root@manage01 ansible]# cp examples/hosts /etc/ansible/ #将需要管理的客户端IP地址写入hosts文件,可以分组或者直接写 [root@manage01 ~]# cat /etc/ansible/hosts 192.168.98.[201:203] 分组 [group1] 192.168.98.[201:203]

2.2)ansible管理服务器部署

管理端ansible目录:/etc/ansible

[root@manage01 ansible]# tree . ├── ansible.cfg #ansible配置文件,不需要配置 ├── hosts #主机列表 └── roles #角色列表 1 directory, 2 files

2.3)部署主机列表,定义被监控机

[root@manage01 ansible]# egrep -v "(^#|^$)" /etc/ansible/hosts [group1] #名字可以随便起 后面跟上业务机器的IP地址或者域名 192.168.98.201 192.168.98.202 192.168.98.203

关于业务机器分组

分组中使用范围 [nginx] 组名 apache[1:10].aaa.com 表示apache1.aaa.com到apache10.aaa.com这10台机器 nginx[a:z].aaa.com 表示nginxa.aaa.com到nginxz.aaa.com共26台机器 10.1.1.[11:15] 表示10.1.1.1110.1.1.155台机器 如果业务机器的SSH端口不是22 10.1.1.13:2222 表示10.1.1.13这台,但ssh端口为2222 指定业务机器别名,未做免密登陆的机器可以通过下面的机器设置账号密码 nginx1 ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.13 ansible_ssh_port=2222 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass="123456" ansible_ssh_host 指定业务机器的IP或域名 ansible_ssh_port 指定业务机器的ssh端口 ansible_ssh_user 指定业务机器的ssh用户名 ansible_ssh_pass 指定业务机器的ssh用户名密码 利用机器别名分组 nginx1 ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.13 ansible_ssh_port=2222 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass="123456" nginx2 ansible_ssh_host=10.1.1.12 [nginx] nginx1 #写服务器别名 nginx2 [root@manage01 ansible]# egrep -v "(^#|^$)" /etc/ansible/hosts #别名定义 web1 ansible_ssh_host=192.168.98.203 ansible_ssh_port=12121 #分组 [group1] 192.168.98.201 #未做免密登陆机器 192.168.98.202:12121 ansible_ssh_user=sko ansible_ssh_pass='123' #别名机器 web1 ansible_ssh_user=sko ansible_ssh_pass='123'

2.4)测试管理机和业务机器的联通性

我们可以使用ansible通过调用ping模块来测试分组机器或某个机器 -m 指定使用的模块 group1 业务机器分组 #测试单个机器 #测试主机列表中的机器 #测试单个机器方法 [root@manage01 ~]# ansible -m ping 192.168.98.201 192.168.98.201 | SUCCESS => { "ansible_facts": { "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python" }, "changed": false, "ping": "pong" } #测试主机列表中的机器方法 [root@manage01 ~]# ansible -m ping group1 192.168.98.201 | SUCCESS => { "ansible_facts": { "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python" }, "changed": false, "ping": "pong" } 192.168.98.203 | SUCCESS => { "ansible_facts": { "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python" }, "changed": false, "ping": "pong" } 192.168.98.202 | SUCCESS => { "ansible_facts": { "discovered_interpreter_python": "/usr/libexec/platform-python" }, "changed": false, "ping": "pong" }

三、学习视频

视频:部署前准备
视频:ssh证书互信设置
视频:ansible平台部署
视频:主机列表文件hosts文件
视频:ansible自动化平台部署知识图谱

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